Created attachment 113684 [details]
test app for getting keyboard description
Calling XkbGetKeyboard() always returns NULL.
OS: Fedora 21, GNOME on Wayland
Yes, there is no way of recovering the (lossy) information that XkbGetKeyboard() provides.
Use XkbGetMap() instead, because not only does it work on Wayland, but on X11 it also provides changes which may have been applied through xmodmap.